Cellulose

Nanocellulose refers to cellulose in the nanometre scale and is a material derived from natural materials including plants and bacteria. But it can also be produced from sugars through biotechnological processes using bacteria that give the product its’ final name – bacterial nanocellulose. Production processes in the 1980’s were energy-intensive, but substantial progress has been

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Cerium Dioxide

Cerium dioxide (CeO2) has a variety of applications. For example ceria nanoparticles are used in catalytic converters in the automotive industry to convert harmful carbon monoxide to less harmful carbon dioxide. The semi-conductor industry uses cerium dioxide nanoparticles as fine abrasive and polishing agent in the manufacturing of computer chips. Non-nanoscaled cerium dioxide can improve the light

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Iron and iron oxides

Iron is the highest occurring metal found in the earth crust. Iron ore is the starting material to produce iron oxides which are used in various applications ranging from the production of steel to data storage devices. Currently applications of iron oxide nanoparticles in medical uses, such as contrast agents or tumour therapeutic agents, are being tested.

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Fullerenes

Fullerenes, also called bucky balls, are a very new modification of pure carbon and their form resembles soccer balls. They consist out of 20 hexagons and 12 pentagons with a carbon atom in each of edges of this lattice structure. There are only very few applications of this new material class.   How can I

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Graphene

Graphene is a one-atom thick layer of carbon and is considered to be a new wonder molecule. Its production became possible only very recently and graphene is now available for various applications. The term graphene is often applied to many members of the family of graphene-based materials the two most important members being graphene and

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Indium Tin Oxides

Indium tin oxide (ITO) or tin-doped indium oxide is a mixture of indium oxide and tin oxide in which the tin component can contribute up to one-fifth of the material composition. Indium tin oxide is a transparent (see-through) material with electrical conductivity. Indium tin oxide is applied mainly as a film to create transparent conductive coatings in the

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Carbon Black

Carbon Black or carbon soot is a material with high economic importance containing pure carbon. Carbon Black is produced through specific combustion processes and the production of this material can be traced back more than one hundred years. It is used in many products including car tyres, printer toner, dyes for leather or textiles and

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Carbon Nanotubes

Since the discovery of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in 1991, this group of carbon molecules has been considered as a wonder material due to some interesting properties. They are stronger than steel but very light in weight. Depending on the production method, the nanotubes can be conducting in nature, semi-conducting or even isolating, which makes this

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Nanoclays

Nanoclays (clay minerals) can be extracted from natural sources and used thereafter. The layered structure enables the material to either swell or shrink depending on its uptake capacity for water. In addition nanoclays are not flammable and the plastics industry uses this feature to improve fire safety of their products. Integrating nanoclays into the plastic

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Silicon Dioxide

Silicon dioxide is the main component of beach sand and is commonly known as quartz in its pure crystalline form. For industrial purposes the amorphous (non-crystalline form) silicon dioxide or silica is of greater importance. Amorphous silica can be found in a range of products including varnishes, glues and paints. It is also used in foods and

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Strontium Carbonate

Strontium carbonate (SrCO3) was formerly used in large quantities in the manufacturing of CRT TVs (CRT = cathode-ray tubes) as strontium carbonate together with other compounds absorbs and reduces significantly (to almost zero) the X-rays generated from the television tubes. Nowadays, modern flat-panel devices have almost completely replaced these tubes. Currently, strontium carbonates are being

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Titanium Nitride

Titanium nitride (TiN) is an extremely hard material that is used as coating material for various tools and implants (TiN coating). It is also used in plastics such as PET flasks to improve the physical properties of these flasks and to improve the efficiency of PET manufacturing processes.   How can I come into contact with this

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Tungsten Carbide

Tungsten carbide is a hard metal and used in wear-resistant ceramics due to its exceptional hardness and stability, e.g. for the manufacturing of nozzles or tools. By adding metals like cobalt, iron or nickel to the tungsten carbide other hard metals are being generated with tungsten carbide-cobalt being one example.   end mill solid carbide © msl33

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Tungsten Carbide-Cobalt

Tungsten carbide-cobalt (WC-Co) is a so-called hard metal which is characterised by an extraordinary hardness and wear resistance. Hard metals are mainly used in the production of tools for milling, drilling and pressing/punching processes. In addition surgical instruments are made of tungsten carbide-cobalt and the best-known product is the rotating balls used in ball point pens.  

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Zeolites

Zeolites are important materials for numerous industrial and consumer products. They have been used intensively for several decades. Zeolites are very porous, as their skeletal structure contains innumerable pores and channels ranging in size from nano to micrometers. Their structure resembles a sponge with many (micro or nano) holes, but they are not flexible. They belong

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Zinc Oxides

Zinc oxide is an all-rounder when it comes to technical applications: it is used in rubber production, in cement and paints, in electronics, in medical products and also as catalyst. Zinc is also an essential element indispensable to life of humans, animals and plants.   Skin lotion © Dan Race / Fotolia.comHow can I come

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Zirconium Dioxide

Zirconium dioxide or zirconia is one of the most widely used ceramic oxides. Its applications range from use in abrasive products, dental bridges and crowns, additive in paints and lacquers, in fuel cell membranes and in joint implants. Zirconium dioxide is also utilised as white pigment for porcelain or in a mixture with vanadium oxide

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Barium Sulphate

The majority of naturally occurring barium sulphate (BaSO4) is used in oil and natural gas production. Barium sulphate is used to increase the density of drilling muds and in this way, rocks can move freely and thus prevents the borehole from becoming blocked up. Technical applications include fillers and additives in products such as linings

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Aluminium Oxides

Aluminium oxide has many applications in which its properties of extraordinary hardness and thermal stability are exploited. Examples of products incorporating aluminium oxide include abrasive materials, bone substitutes, melting pots and watch glasses. Aluminium oxide is a classic antacid remedy for heartburn.   How can I come into contact with this material? sanding paperWhen used as an

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Nano Aluminum Al

Aluminum nanopowder has seen a flurry of research interest in recent years, as potential applications across a host of fields become apparent. Appearing as spherical grey or black particles individually and a grey or black powder in aggregate, aluminum nanopowder particles typically ranging in size from 10nm to 5um.You can obtain aluminum nanopowders in a

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