Silver Nanoparticles Medicine are of interest because of the unique properties (Ag, 99%, 1-100nm and shape
depending optical, electrical, and magnetic properties) which can be incorporated into antimicrobial
applications, biosensor materials, Cryogenic superconducting materials. Several physical and chemical methods
have been used for synthesizing and stabilizing silver Nanoparticles importance in a number of areas such as
health care, environmental health, biomedical sciences, drug-gene delivery applications.

The major application of silver Nanoparticles in the medical field include diagnostic application and therapeutic
applications. In most of the therapeutic application, it is the antimicrobial property that is being majorly
explored, though the anti-inflammatory property has its fair share of application. Silver nanoparticales use is
widely used in range of biomedical application including diagnosis, treatment drug delivery, medical device
coating and for personal heath. Their application can be broadly divided into diagnostic and therapeutic uses.
Diagnostic: Early diagnosis to any disease condition is vital to ensure that early treatment is started and perhaps
resulting in a better chance of cure. This is particularly true for cancer. Lin et al reported silver nanoparticle
based Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) in non-invasive cancer detection. This approach is highly
promising and may prove to be an indispensable tool for the future.

Therapeutics: Application of Silver Nanoparticles in Medicine is in wound healing. Compared with other silver
compounds, many studies have demonstrated the superior efficacy of Ag NPs in healing time, as well as
achieving better cosmetic after healing. Here, it was shown that in wounds treated with Ag NPs, there was better
collagen alignment after healing when compared to controls, which resulted in better mechanical strength.
Oncology: Human epidermis cancer cell line was targeted with floated silver-dendrite composite nanodevices
and the labeled cancer cells were subsequently destroyed by the microbubbles generated through increased
uptake of laser light energy by Ag Nps.
Silver bullet: Silver bullet is the understanding and treatment of mental illness. The neural cell replacement for
spinal cord injury is possible. Spinal cord research is so complex. It will come from a combination of discoveries
and therapies that deal with neural regeneration, reconnection across the injured area, and functional recovery.
Surgical mesh: For general surgery, surgical implants are often unavoidable. Surgical meshes are commonly
used for bridging large wounds, as well as acting as reinforcements to tissue repair. However, being foreign
material, they do carry a risk of infection. Indeed, it has been estimated that one million nocosomial infections
are seen each year in patients with implanted prosthetic materials. The use of silver nanoparticles polypropylene mesh has been studied recently. Similar to other studies using silver nanoparticles, the results showed that silver nanoparticles polypropylene mesh had significant bactericidal efficacy against S. aureus. Furthermore, it was
shown that silver nanoparticles could continue to diffuse off the mesh and had sustained activity. These results
clearly warrant further in vivo studies to determine whether silver nanoparticles-coated polypropylene mesh can
decrease the prosthetic infection rate and the host inflammatory response in the clinical setting

Silver in orthopaedics: Artificial joint replacements have become the gold standard treatment for many arthritic
diseases. Like all biomaterials, bone cement based on polymethylmetacrylate (PMMA) has an elevated risk of
infection when implanted into the human body.82 Indeed, an increasing number of joint infections with multiresistant bacteria mean that an adequate prophylaxis against these organisms is necessary. Recent studies have been carried out to evaluate bone cement loaded with nanosilver. Here, nanosilver-loaded bone cement could
be shown to have high antibacterial activity against all tested strains including methicillin-resistant
Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Furthermore, the nanoparticles did not seem to have cytotoxicity to osteoblasts
grown in vitro. As well as bone cement, the use of silver nanoparticles has been studied in artificial joints. it
would appear that silver nanoparticles could play a significant role in the next generation of biomaterials in

Silver Nanoparticles Medicine: Silver-impregnated catheters
Central venous catheters: A new generation of silver-impregnated catheters based on the use of an inorganic
silver powder, on which silver ions are bonded with an inert ceramic zeolite, has become available for clinical
use. In a recent study comparing these silver-impregnated catheters with standard catheters in terms of
incidence of catheter-related blood stream infections, it was shown that overall colonization rate was
significantly lower in the silver-impregnated CVC tips. In addition, tip colonization by coagulase-negative
staphylococci in the silver-impregnated CVC was lower. It would therefore appear that silver-impregnated
catheters are destined for increasing use. Vascular prosthesis. For vascular surgeons, much research in vascular
surgery has focused on the development of infection-resistant prosthetic grafts over the years. Recently, the use
of the InterGard Silver bifurcated polyester graft coated with collagen and silver. It would therefore appear that
silver-impregnated catheters are destined for increasing use.
Ventricular drainage catheters: Insertion of temporary external ventricular drainage (EVD) is a commonly used
procedure in intensive care patients for the management of acute occlusive hydrocephalus. However, an
important complication of external cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage is bacterial colonization of the catheter,
resulting in ventriculomeningitis and encephalitis. The availability of silver-impregnated ventricular catheters
since 2004 resulted in a pilot study addressing their clinical efficacy in neurological and neurosurgical patients
requiring external CSF drainage. The authors found that CSF cultures performed at least three times a week
yielded 25% more positive cultures in the control group compared to 0% in the treatment group using silver
catheters. Furthermore, aseptic meningitis due to inflammation was not seen in patients.
Wound dressing: Wound healing is regarded as a complex and multiple-step process involving integration of
activities of different tissues and cell lineages. Perhaps the most well documented and commonly used
application of silver nanoparticles for this is in the use of wound dressings. In this regard, Acticoat, which is the
first commercial dressing made up of two layers of polyamide ester membranes covered with nanocrystalline
silver ions, has been studied extensively. Acticoat has been shown to have the lowest MIC and MBC values, and
the fastest Kill kinetics against the five bacteria tested in in vitro studies. with the silver-impregnated biomedical material. Patients having comparable burn wound size, depth and location, the wounds were either treated withsilver nanoparticles dressing or a gauze soaked in 0.5% silver nitrate solution.

Silver Nanoparticles Medicine: Nanosilver particles are generally smaller than 100 nm and contain 20–15,000
silver atoms. At nanoscale, silver exhibits remarkably unusual physical, chemical and biological properties. Due
to its strong antibacterial activity, nanosilver coatings are used on various textiles but as well as coatings on
certain implants. Further, nanosilver is used for treatment of wounds and burns or as a contraceptive and
marketed as a water disinfectant and room spray. Thus, use of nanosilver is becoming more and more
widespread in medicine and related applications and due to increasing exposure toxicological and
environmental issues need to be raised. In sharp contrast to the attention paid to new applications of nanosilver,
few studies provide only scant insights into the interaction of nanosilver particle with the human body after
entering via different portals

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