Multifunctional Nanoparticles Application: major aim of medicine has long been the early and accurate
diagnosis of clinical conditions, providing an efficient treatment without secondary effects. With the emergence
of nanotechnology, the achievement of this goal seems closer than ever. To this end, the development of novel
materials and devices operating at the nanoscale range, such as nanoparticles, provides new and powerful tools
for imaging, diagnosis and therapy. This review focuses on the significant improvements in performance that
nanoparticles offer compared with existing technologies r elevant to medicine. Specifically, we address the
design of multifunctional nanoparticles as an alternative system for drug and gene delivery, which has great
potential for therapy in areas, such as cancer and neuropathologies. Moreover, we discuss the controversy
generated by the possible toxic health effects of nanoparticles

Multifunctional Nanoparticles Application: Nanoparticles are constructs that possess unique physical and
chemical properties associated with their being of 1– 100 nm in size. The general characteristics and
composition of nanoparticles are described in Box 1 and are illustrated in Figure 1. Nanometre-sized particles
are in the same range of dimension as antibodies, membrane receptors, nucleic acids and proteins, among other
biomolecules. These biomimetic features, together with their high surface:volume ratio and the possibility of
modulating their properties, make nanoparticles powerful tools for imaging, diagnosis and therapy. Thus,
nanoparticles offer significant improvements in performance compared with existing technologies. As a result,
commercialisation of nanoparticle-based therapeutics is gaining momentum, with an increasing number of
available products on the market. Table 1 gives examples of commercial nanoparticle-based products. Other
issues related to nanoparticle technology, such as biomolecule–nanoparticle hybrid systems and their use
towards medical diagnostics and therapeutics, have been reviewed elsewhere.

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