Metal-nanoparticles In the last decade the use of Metal Nanoparticles has been having a great impact in bio
sensing. In particular, the unique properties of noble metal Nanoparticles have allowed for the development of
new bio sensing platforms with enhanced capabilities in the specific detection of bioanalytes. Noble metal
Nanoparticles show unique physicochemical properties (such as ease of functionalization via simple chemistry
and high surface-to-volume ratios) that allied with their unique spectral and optical properties have prompted
the development of a plethora of bio sensing platforms. Additionally, they also provide an additional or
enhanced layer of application for commonly used techniques, such as fluorescence, infrared and Raman
spectroscopy. Herein we review the use of noble metal nano particles for bio sensing strategies—from synthesis
and functionalization to integration in molecular diagnostics platforms, with special focus on those that have
made their way into the diagnostics laboratory

Metal-nanoparticles are, in general, one of the most common nanotechnology-based approaches for
enveloping biosensors, due to their simplicity, physiochemical malleability and high surface areas. They can
measure between 1 to 100 nm in diameter, have different shapes and can be composed of one or more
inorganic compounds, such as noble metals, heavy metals, iron, etc. The majority of them exhibit size-related
properties that differ significantly from those observed in micro particles or bulk materials.

Metal-nanoparticles on their size and composition we can observe peculiar properties, such as quantum
confinement in semiconductor nanocrystals, surface Plasmon resonance in some Metal Nanoparticles and super
para magnetism in magnetic materials. Noble metal NPs, in particular gold and silver NPs, are among the most
extensively studied Nanomaterials and have led to the development of numerous techniques and methods for
molecular diagnostics, imaging, drug delivery and the rapeutics. Most of their unique physicochemical
properties at the nanoscale, such as Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR), have been explored for the
development of new biosensors. This review will focus on these unique physicochemical properties of noble
Metal Nanoparticles that have thus far been explored for the development of new highly sensitive and specific
bio sensing techniques, favouring those that have already been successfully tested with biological samples.
While some recent reports have addressed specific bio-application for noble Metal Nanoparticles,

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