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Nanografi's Horizon 2020 SME Instrument winner project

NANOGRAFİ’S HORİZON 2020 SME INSTRUMENT WİNNER PROJECT

Nanografi Company was awarded with Horizon 2020 SME Instrument Phase 1 grant by European Union to launch one of the largest Graphene Manufacturing Plants in the world with its patent pending eco-friendly and cost efficient production method (GREENGRAPHENE).

With its disruptive innovation of GREENGRAPHENE, Nanografi has applied for European Commission’s Horizon 2020 SME Instrument programme, a highly competitive and reputable fund aiming to increase Europe’s global competitiveness, and granted to Small and Medium-sized Enterprises with innovative & groundbreaking projects in Europe.

As one of the pioneers in the field, Nanografi developed a graphene production method in 2016 which releases no hazardous substance to the environment, leaves almost no waste behind, and decreases the costs in significant amounts, without sacrificing the quality.

Graphene Production is now Eco-Friendly as well

Before 2016, graphene production was not only costly, but also suffering from environmental problems because a huge amount of waste was generated during old graphene production processes. Economic and environmental concerns became an obstacle for industries to benefit from graphene in full measure.

After its groundbreaking discovery, inventors of graphene were awarded with 2010 Nobel Prize in Physics. Being the lightest, strongest, and the most conductive material in the world, graphene is known to have a wide range of uses in many industries today.

It is expected that in the next five years the demand for graphene will increase over 10 thousand tons per year, making the current total global capacity of manufacturers, less than 1000 tons, highly insufficient.

 


Objective of GREENGRAPHENE Project

Graphene-based materials gained a lot of interest by researchers worldwide and a wide variety of applications has been developed from them in the last decade. There are more than 45.000 patent applications recorded after the inventors of graphene were awarded with Nobel prize in 2010. Graphene’s applications extend from fast charging high capacity batteries to light-weight and high strength aircraft parts. Composite industry is the field that graphene can be quickly adapted because graphene can be produced in powder form similar to many of the other additives used in the composites industry. Composites industry is a €63.2 Billion market and it is expected to reach above €113,85 Billion within the next 5-6 years. Offering performance properties comparable with the current metallic and ceramic materials is the main motivation for the composite producers and costs of the additives in the market constitutes only 1% (>€1 Billion market for additives) of the overall costs.

The major obstacle that prevents the rapid initiation and adaption of graphene into the composites market is the price ranges (2800-7600 €/kg) of the material with desired quality. In order to overcome this obstacle, Nanografi developed a simple, disruptive, cost-effective and environment-friendly graphene production method (patent pending) and offered a good chance for graphene in the composites industry. The developed method offers graphene nanoplatelet product with high quality and offering the lowest price range (<€85/kg graphene) after the production is scaled up to 100 tonnes/year within 5 years. The price offers can go down further as the demand increases. To conclude, in GREENGRAPHENE Project, Nanografi aims to bring its high quality graphene product which we produce by our highly innovative method to the composites market and prepare technical/economic feasibility plans for increasing the use of graphene in the composites industry.

Reduced Graphene Oxide and Applications

REDUCED GRAPHENE OXİDE AND APPLİCATİONS

Graphene oxide (GO) is a type of graphene that contains oxygen functional groups and has some interesting properties different than those of graphene. By reducing graphene oxide, reduced graphene oxide is obtained which is abbreviated to rGO. In this process, the functional groups of graphene are removed but it still contains residual oxygen, hetereatoms and structural defects which decrease its quality. Having less-quality compared to pristine graphene, rGO is still an outstanding material for various applications since it resembles an attractive cost and manufacturing processes compared to the pristine graphene. Especially, it is preferred in applications that call for a large amount of material.

Depending on the method of preparation of reduced graphene oxide, properties and morphology of the rGO can vary. Some preparation methods of reduced graphene oxide include:

  • treating graphene oxide with hydrazine hydrate at 100°C for 24 hours
  • exposure to hydrogen plasma for several seconds
  • exposure to powerful pulsed light from xenon flashtubes
  • heating the graphene oxide with urea as an expansion-reduction agent
  • direct heating of graphene oxide in a furnace to very high temperatures

Applications of Reduced Graphene Oxide (rGO)

Electronics: rGO shows a great potential in electronics applications. It is used as a field effect transistor that has been used in chemical sensors and biosensors. In biosensors, detect hormonal catecholamine molecules, avidin and DNA. rGO is also used in light emitting diodes (LEDs) and solar cell devices. For these applications, having transparent electrode is important and rGO is a convenient for these devices.

Energy Storage: Nanocomposites of rGO is used for lithium-ion batteries, extensively. In these batteries, nanoparticles of insulating metal oxide are absorbed onto rGO which enhances the performance of these materials in lithium-ion batteries.

It is also used in many composite materials and printable graphene electronics.

Overall, rGO is a suitable material for many applications although it looks like less impressive when it is compared to graphene.

​Hydroxyapatite Nano and Micron Powder

​HYDROXYAPATİTE NANO AND MİCRON POWDER

Hydroxyapatite is a calcium phosphate compound, its formula is Ca10 (PO4)6(OH)2. It is a part of the raw material, called phosphoric rock. The term hydroxy refers to the anion OH. If instead of that anion is replaced with fluoride, the mineral would be called Fluoroapatite Ca10 (PO4)6(F)2. Hydroxyapatite is the main inorganic component of the bones and dental enamel.

Hydroxyapatite predominantly exists in two forms which are nanoHydroxyapatite powder and micron Hydroxyapatite powder. The difference between the two is of size. The size of Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles is below 200 nm whereas micron Hydroxyapatite exists in the range of 45 – 90 micron. The surface area for Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles is around 9.4 m2/g whereas Hydroxyapatite micron powder has a surface area of 120 m2/g.

 

History and importance of Hydroxyapatite

The use of Hydroxyapatite began after 1950 when after a lot of research, it was found that it can be used in dental surgeries. Since then, its use has continuously increased. It is an important element in the bone tissues of living beings. Its great stability against other calcium phosphate products permits it to withstand physiological conditions, giving the bones their characteristic hardness. Hydroxyapatite fulfills its operation with the aid of collagen, the fibrous protein of connective tissues. Hydroxyapatite consists of Ca2+ ion, but it can also consist of other cations in its structure such as Na+Mg2+, etc.

Structure of Hydroxyapatite

The below image shows the structure of hydroxyapatite. All spheres occupy the volume of the half of a hexagonal “box”, where the other half is identical to the first.

Structure of Hydroxyapatite

In this structure, the green spheres represent Ca2+ cations, while the red spheres represent oxygen atoms, the orange spheres represents the phosphorus atoms, and the white spheres represent OH.

The phosphate ions in this structure have the defect of not exhibiting a tetrahedral geometry; instead, they look like pyramids with square bases.

It looks like OH– is positioned far from the Ca2+. However, the crystalline unit can repeat itself on the roof of the first, thus presenting the close relationship between both ions. Also, these ions can be substituted by others such as Na+ and F.

Synthesis of Hydroxyapatite

Hydroxyapatite can be created by the reaction of calcium hydroxide with phosphoric acid:

10Ca(OH)2 + 6H3PO4 => Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 + 18H2O

Likewise, hydroxyapatite can be produced through the following reaction:

10Ca(NO3)2. 4H2O + 6NH4H2PO4 => Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 + 20NH4NO3 + 52H2O

The hydroxyapatite nanoparticles can be generated by controlling the rate of precipitation.

 

Hydroxyapatite crystals

The ions are crushed and grown to form a resistant and rigid bio crystal. This is employed as a biomaterial for bone mineralization. However, it needs collagen, an organic support that acts as a mold for its development. These crystals and their complex formation procedures depend on the bone.

Physical and Chemical properties

  • 1.Hydroxyapatite is a white powder that can acquire grayish, green and yellow appearance. As it is a crystalline solid, it has a greater melting point (1100 °C), which indicates strong electrostatic interactions.
  • 2.Fluorine (F) can be substituted by OH ions in the crystal structure. In this case, it adds resistance to the hydroxyapatite of the dental enamel against the acids. Possibly, this resistance may be due to the insolubility of the formed CaF2, refusing to “leave” the crystal.
  • 3.However, in acidic media (as in HCl), it is soluble. This solubility is due to the creation of CaCl2, a highly soluble salt in water. Also, phosphates are protonated (HPO42- and H2PO4-) and interact to a greater extent with water.
  • 4.It is denser as compared to water, with a density of 3.05 – 3.15 g/cm3. Moreover, it is practically insoluble in water (0.3 mg/mL), which is because of phosphate ions.
  • 5.The solubility of hydroxyapatite in acids is significant in the pathophysiology of caries. The bacteria in the oral cavity secrete lactic acid, a product of the fermentation of glucose, which drops the pH of the dental surface to less than 5 so that hydroxyapatite starts to dissolve.

 

Applications of nanoHydroxyapatite

Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles have a diversity of applications, which are given below:

  • In the surgery of bone tissue, it is employed in the filling of cavities in traumatological, maxillofacial, orthopedic, and dental surgeries.
  • The use of hydroxyapatite nanopowder is beneficial in the repairing of enamel and incorporation in toothpaste, as well as mouth rinses.
  • It is employed as a coating for orthopedic and dental implants. It is a desensitizing agent used after tooth whitening. It is also employed as a remineralizing agent in toothpaste and in the early diagnosis of caries.
  • Due to its resemblance in size, crystallography, and composition with hard human tissue, it is valuable for use in prostheses. Also, nano-hydroxyapatite is bioactive, biocompatible, and natural, as well as not being toxic or inflammatory.
  • Titanium and Stainless steel implants are frequently coated with hydroxyapatite nanoparticles to decrease their refutation rate.
  • It is a substitute to xenogenic and allogeneic bone grafts. The healing time is less in the presence of hydroxyapatite nanopowder than in its absence.

Applications of micron hydroxyapatite powder

  • An alginate-hydroxyapatite complex has been manufactured which is capable of absorbing fluorine through the mechanism of ion exchange.
  • Hydroxyapatite micron powder has also been used as a provision for the electrophoresis of nucleic acids. It separates RNA from DNA, as well as DNA from a single strand of two-strand DNA.
  • Micron Hydroxyapatite is used in the air filters of motor vehicles to enhance the efficiency of filters in the absorption and decomposition of carbon monoxide (CO). This decreases the environmental pollution.
  • Micron Hydroxyapatite is employed as a chromatographic medium for proteins. This presents positive charges (Ca+) and negative charges (PO4-3), so it can interact with electrically charged proteins and permit the separation by the ion exchange process.
Silver Nanowires & Applications

SİLVER NANOWİRES & APPLİCATİONS

Silver nanowires are a type of silver nanomaterials that are expressively different in comparison to silver nanoparticles. As the name indicates, these nanomaterials have three dimensions.

The unique properties of this conductive nanomaterial have led to increasing use of silver nanowire-based technologies, such as in the manufacturing of flexible touchscreen displays. However, the potential adverse effects of these “thin but long” and highly reactive silver nanowires have been poorly understood so far. The goal should be the development of new and safer technological applications of silver nanowires.

Silver nanowires of different sizes, coatings, and shapes are being synthesized and analyzed by the consortium for potential human and environmental impacts. The properties of the nanowires that cause concern are identified and new synthetic methods are developed to produce silver nanowires with lower potential risks. New approaches to the recovery of silver nanowires are being developed to avoid possible landfill release and to facilitate the recycling of flexible electronics.

 

Properties of Silver Nanowires

The major properties of silver nanowires are given below:

  • They have distinct electrical, thermal, and optical properties and they can be used to produce a variety of products ranging from biological sensors to photovoltaics.
  • Silver nanowires are remarkable in absorption and reflection of light.
  • Silver nanowires interact with molecules in the solution and create a double layer of charge that inhibits aggregation and stabilizes the silver nanowires.
  • Silver nanowires are highly conductive.
  • Silver nanowires can be dispersed in water, ethanol IPA (isopropyl alcohol), ethylene glycol, and epoxy resin.

Production of Silver Nanowires

Silver nanowires can be produced by multiple techniques, some of them are stated below:

  • Rapid synthesis: Copper chloride and polyvinyl pyrrolidone are mixed in disposable glass vials to produce silver nanowires.
  • Electroless deposition: The metal amplification technique is used to produce silver nanowires and in this technique, electroless deposition of silver into the polycarbonate membranes occurs.
  • Polyol method: In this method, Silver nanowires are manufactured by an aqueous solvent which is heated in an autoclave at the temperature of 120 °C for approximately 8 hours.
  • Template method: This technique uses supramolecular nanotubes of an amphiphilic cyanine dye in an aqueous solution for the production of silver nanowires.

Applications of Silver Nanowires

Silver nanowires have a plethora of applications, the main ones are stated below:

  • Conductive applications: Computer boards, high-intensity LEDs, and Touchscreen displays.
  • Antibacterial applications: Clothing, Bandages, sterile equipment, cosmetics, and paints.
  • Optical sector: Medical imaging, Surface plasmons, Raman spectroscopy, optical limiters, and solar films.
  • Optical applications: Optical spectroscopies, for example, metal-enhanced fluorescence and surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

Latest inventions of Silver Nanowires

  • Silver nanowires garments

According to the latest invention, silver nanowires protect against the cold. This new invention is part of a new concept, name as “personal thermal management”. It is manufactured by coating the garment with silver nanowires (wires with a diameter of one nanometer, which is one billionth of a meter). As these metallic nanowires are conductors, the garment conducts the energy and serve as a portable “heater”. In other words, it can be actively heated with a source of electricity, such as a small battery.

But, in addition, the silver nanowires make the garment become a good insulator, able to reflect more than 90% of body heat. This reflection is much greater than that of the warmest wool sweater, which at most reflects around 20% of body heat. So the clothes coated with silver nanowires would work as active heating and as passive insulation. On the other hand, these garments would be breathable, due to the porous structure of the nanowires; and it would feel practically the same as normal clothes.

  • Ultra-light aerogel

A group of researchers from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in the US has developed a new type of ultra-light aerogel, so light could be held up by a rose without having to lower or bend it. It is a metal foam that is grafted into that new class of material with very light unique properties that can be used in particular in the electronic energy industries.

This material, in particular, uses ultra-light and conductive silver nanowires. According to Fang Qian, lead author of the study published in Nano Letters, “The high porosity and excellent mechanical/electrical properties of these silver nanotube aerogels can lead to better device performance and open up new possibilities for cell fuel, energy storage, medical devices, catalysis, and sensors”.

Future of Silver Nanowires

  • The increasing demand for micro integration of electronic systems has caused extensive research on metal nanowires due to their optical properties. This has caused the development of numerous advanced technologies in different sectors.
  • Silver has good electrical conductivity which is the reason that Silver nanowires have greater electrical conductivity with enhanced optical transparency and optical flexibility. These factors are important for manufacturing optoelectronic and electronic devices.
  • Research has also indicated that silver nanowires can be employed for the miniaturization of ultra large electrical circuits and quantum devices in the coming time.
  • Silver nanowires are likely to allow the next generation to create flexible touch panels, including the rotation of the car’s entire dashboard in a vast finger-sensitive surface. This is because they are better in electrical conduction than indium-tin-oxide and the current touch-sensor material. Silver nanowires can be easily applied to flexible plastic substrates. Moreover, they are also highly transparent.
  • They are not only useful in touch panels, but highly conductive silver nanowires also have applications in high-efficiency solar panels and lighting panels, which also benefit from the fact that nanowires are practically indestructible.

 

Silver nanowires have great potential for developing advanced technology applications. This is due to their exciting electrical, thermal and optical properties. They have applications in almost all the sectors such as optics, electronics, magnetics, textile, automobile, high-performance catalysts, and acoustics. A lot of researches are currently underway to discover more and more of its applications.

Nano Cellulose& Applications

NANO CELULOSE & APPLİCATİONS

Nano-cellulose is a material that consists of cellulose nano-fibers, which are a string of cellulose molecules with an elongated tubular shape. Nano-cellulose in the future will be cheap, resistant, organic and ecological. It is paradoxical that the future solutions for the world that will serve as the basis for the technological infrastructures and will govern the life of future generations are not visible to the human eye. Scientists from the University of Texas use the same bacteria that produces coconut cream to transform algae into nano-cellulose; an element that could revolutionize the world.

 

Nano-cellulose is a plant material that is broken down into microscopic pieces, then purified and rebuilt. The bacterium Acetobacter xylinum is able to synthesize the cellulose found in blue-green algae, with only a little water, sunlight and time. The process absorbs carbon dioxide, the greenhouse gas mainly responsible for global warming.

Properties of Nanocellulose

  • It is light, strong and rigid, and with a high coefficient of resistance with respect to its weight (it is eight times more resistant than stainless steel).
  • It is stable in terms of temperature changes.
  • It has interesting optical properties as it is transparent.
  • It dilates little with heat.
  • It conducts electricity.
  • Since it is a derivative of cellulose, which is a raw material produced by plants in very large quantities every year, it is intrinsically renewable and beneficial for the environment.

Classification of Nanocellulose

It is classified into three types:

  • Micro Fibrillated Cellulose (MFC)
  • Nanocrystalline Cellulose (NCC)
  • Bacterial Cellulose (NBC).

Production methods for Nanocellulose

Nano-cellulose is obtained from wood by the compression of plant fibers or natural crops. As a result, different types of bacteria produce it autonomously. There is the possibility of using a certain type of algae to produce the material naturally, without the need for nutrients. Only sunlight and water would be needed, which are significant not only because of the ecological nature of the process but also because of the radical reduction in costs.

 

Potential uses of Nano cellulose

Nano-cellulose has great potential for the future. It serves to generate a sustainable biofuel. It can be a solution to the current fuel crisis. Because it is strong and light, it can create an ultra-absorbent gel capable of supporting 10 thousand times its own weight. It could be used to replace tampons and feminine towels.

By combining Nano cellulose with other materials such as graphene, incredible results can be obtained as batteries that are recharged by just bending them. The possibilities are endless. The more experiments are done with it, the more applications will be found. The prominent applications of Nano cellulose are given below:

1. Lightweight and super resistant reinforcement:

Some of the materials that are normally used for this task, such as carbon fiber or ceramics, tend to make the process much more expensive and alter the polymer because they take away clarity and add some color. The nano-cellulose could overcome both obstacles. In addition, its transparent appearance also gives an advantage in this field, since it is perfect for protecting vehicles or making impact-proof helmets, not to mention the glasses of shops with the highest tendency to suffer robberies.

2. More resistant and efficient cars:

According to scientists from the University of Maine, adding only 10% of nano-cellulose to the mixture of any composite material increases the strength of the final substance by up to 70%, something that could benefit the transport sector greatly, and the automobile industry especially. Due to its lightness, this could happen without the increase in the weight of cars, and even the weight can be decreased if the nano-cellulose replaces other heavier materials. In this way, the vehicles would not need to consume more fuel to be more resistant and safe.

The Ford automotive company plans to use nano-cellulose to make parts of the bodywork of their cars, as it would help to lose weight.

3. Medical and health use:

The nano-cellulose is highly absorbent, porous and can be molded to different shapes. This makes it perfect for making absorbent products such as gauze, bandages or even tampons. Its biodegradable nature is another advantage for these uses, as well as for use in small implants, such as heart valve replacements, artificial ligaments or joint parts. Its applications in the field of medicine are very promising. By combining small amounts of nano-cellulose with water, very stable hydrogels have formed that share many properties with human tissues, which is giving rise to research on the application of drugs and even tissue and organ engineering.

4. Sponges to clean spills in the sea:

By mixing nano-celluloses with water, hydrogels are obtained, but mixing them with other components, all together form aerogels, which are a kind of sponge, capable of resisting stably in water for more than 60 years. This property can be exploited in other uses such as, to facilitate the cleaning tasks after a polluting spill in the sea water.

5. Improve other materials such as plastics or paper:

Nano-cellulose is a derivative of cellulose, with which paper and cardboard are manufactured. Adding it to its composition can reinforce the network of fibers that compose them and make them stronger and more resistant. It could become an interesting ingredient for boxes and packaging that must resist outdoors, or that are in contact with fatty materials, for example, preventing them from breaking or spoiling. For its properties, it can also be used to improve the mechanical qualities of some plastics, such as thermoplastic resin or latex, making them more flexible and resistant.

The company Pioneer Electronics has big plans for this new material. As it is light, resistant and transparent, it can replace plastic or glass. Currently, it is experimented to be used in the manufacture of thin and flexible screens.

6. Filters

Due to its particular structure, nano-cellulose can be used to create powerful filters capable of purifying almost any liquid. It has the capacity to produce drinking water from seawater, and it is able to filter the blood during transfusions and even ridding smokers of some harmful chemicals from the cigar.

 

All in all, nano-cellulose is completely eco-sustainable and therefore a renewable product. It has exceptional characteristics that make it light, flexible and even more resistant than steel. Its uses are numerous and varied. Nano-cellulose consists of plant material and its appearance is that of a transparent gel, quite viscous. The production process starts with a sort of woody paste and its applications are innumerable.

Hydraulic Crimping Machine for Coin Cells

HYDRAULİC CRİMPİNG MACHİNE FOR COİN CELLS

A hydraulic crimping machine can be straightforwardly explained as a machine that is designed and used by manufacturers across the world in order to crimp or secure together with a connector to the border most point of a hose. This can be better understood as the attachment of distortable metallic fixtures with segments of both inflexible and pliable hose and tubing. This is done by joining the two ends of a cable (also referred to as the hose) by either crimping one portion or both ends of it.

The advancements in technology that have removed the trouble of individuals having the need to handle these tools have brought about a significant advantage to the modern world. Many of the modern tools that have been designed are extremely light in weight and compact (e.g. hand hydraulic crimper tool). This further eases the task of handling and using it. These machines can also be completely independent and self-contained. Moreover, quicker crimp cycles and more streamlined shaping makes the entire task be conducted extremely efficient. This benefit can be obtained for a significant period of time because of the durability of the machines that are being produced today.

The benefits to individuals that have been mentioned earlier come in the form of reduction of their bodily pressure exerted (to manually pump the hydraulic machine) on the machine. This can alleviate the danger of individuals being diagnosed with repetitive motion injury.

How a Hydraulic Crimping Machine for Coin Cells Works

In general, it can be understood that hydraulic crimp machines are used; towards the task of an attachment of a terminal or contact to an electrical conductor. As opposed to a handheld crimp tool, these machines are used in a complete mechanism cycle where the shut heights of the connector ought to be constant. As is evident, these are put to use in an industrial setting, i.e. factories, and production lines (e.g. mechanical engineering field). Traditional crimping tools required both human effort and also brought about significant costs because of the need to employ an electrical force for the pressurization of the tool. Technological advancements have enabled some of these machine systems to merely require rechargeable batteries.

These machines can vary in; physical proportions (i.e. vertical measurement, depth, and breadth), standards-based capacity, configuration time and time of the complete cycle. The latter varies in accordance with the hose and fitting styles. The tools and dies are marked with color as a means of identification and differentiation. They are used with the relevant accessories (e.g. hydraulic hose). The hoses are categorized according to; liquid, compatibility, physical force and intensity of heat.

The hydraulic crimping machines used in manufacturing plants and large industries (e.g. construction industry, chemical industry, automobile industry, and petroleum industry) are large and are not ideally moved from one location to another on a regular basis.

In modern times, however, crimping machines used in certain industries, such as for coin cells- have been designed in a more lightweight manner. For example, hydraulic crimp machines used for coin cells have been manufactured in smaller sizes. This may be especially possible because of the lower levels of pressure that can be applied in these machines.

This is run using a number of general steps. Sufficient anti-abrasion hydraulic lubricants ought to be used before ensuring that the electrical source and any other prerequisites cited in the performance manual is fulfilled. The extent of pressure applied is regulated by the operator through the scale. The pressure applied is known as swaging and clockwise/anticlockwise adjustments on the scale will decrease and increase the levels of swaging, respectively. Further regulation of the swaging pressure and pressure in the opening mold can be controlled with the help of (two) knobs at the rear of the oil cylinder. According to the largeness of the rubber hose (on which pressure will be exerted), an appropriate mold (with consideration of both the reference table and the relevant locking pipe and mold) should be mounted on the mold base.

 

Applications of Hydraulic Crimping Machine for Coin Cells

The many types of uses of hydraulic crimping machines have been mentioned briefly above. One of the applications of this machine is for the crimping of coin cells. These crimpers are typically able to seal different types of coin cells, which are of varying sizes using different dies. Additionally, the modern crimping machines have special designs that have made the machine much more lightweight and with smaller prints and several other features that ease operations.

The machines are usually sold with die sets. Users also have the option of purchasing additional die sets in other special sized cases according to their preferences. There would mostly be built in gauges in order to monitor and control pressure. The precision of the dies will further contribute to error-free crimping. They also sometimes have a built-in safety valve which can enable the control of pressure limits. This will help alleviate the possibility of damages. On the note of damage, some machines have an anti-corrosion interior and this would prevent the coin cells from getting damaged as a result of short circuits. Some machines also have an aluminum tray that ought to be placed on the base of the crimper and this will help alleviate the possibility of unfortunate oil leakages. These machines can also be utilized for the purpose of disassembly.

The machines usually come with a warranty for up to one year provided that the user does not utilize the machine irresponsibly (e.g. unsuitable storage conditions, insufficient maintenance measures) and cause, for instance; rust. The design of these machines is also is usually equipped with a hydraulic pump that isn’t modeled to hold significant levels of pressure.

Ä°lgili resim

Image retrieved from: Wang et al., Real-time monitoring of internal temperature evolution of the lithium-ion coin cell battery during the charge and discharge process. Extreme mechanics letters, Vol 9 – https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352431615300675 )

Developments in hydraulic crimping machines have removed the weight (of having to manage the devices manually) from individuals and this henceforth will contribute to a better outcome (i.e. a larger number of connections on a daily basis). It can, therefore, be concluded as a relatively worthwhile investment. It is, however, advisable to ensure that the right manufacturer who equips the machine well with the relevant accessories is chosen. As a result, a secure connection can be established.

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NANOGRAFİ’S HORİZON 2020 SME INSTRUMENT WİNNER PROJECT

Nanografi Company was awarded with Horizon 2020 SME Instrument Phase 1 grant by European Union to launch one of the largest Graphene Manufacturing Plants in the world with its patent pending eco-friendly and cost efficient production method (GREENGRAPHENE).

With its disruptive innovation of GREENGRAPHENE, Nanografi has applied for European Commission’s Horizon 2020 SME Instrument programme, a highly competitive and reputable fund aiming to increase Europe’s global competitiveness, and granted to Small and Medium-sized Enterprises with innovative & groundbreaking projects in Europe.

As one of the pioneers in the field, Nanografi developed a graphene production method in 2016 which releases no hazardous substance to the environment, leaves almost no waste behind, and decreases the costs in significant amounts, without sacrificing the quality.

Graphene Production is now Eco-Friendly as well

Before 2016, graphene production was not only costly, but also suffering from environmental problems because a huge amount of waste was generated during old graphene production processes. Economic and environmental concerns became an obstacle for industries to benefit from graphene in full measure.

After its groundbreaking discovery, inventors of graphene were awarded with 2010 Nobel Prize in Physics. Being the lightest, strongest, and the most conductive material in the world, graphene is known to have a wide range of uses in many industries today.

It is expected that in the next five years the demand for graphene will increase over 10 thousand tons per year, making the current total global capacity of manufacturers, less than 1000 tons, highly insufficient.

 


Objective of GREENGRAPHENE Project

Graphene-based materials gained a lot of interest by researchers worldwide and a wide variety of applications has been developed from them in the last decade. There are more than 45.000 patent applications recorded after the inventors of graphene were awarded with Nobel prize in 2010. Graphene’s applications extend from fast charging high capacity batteries to light-weight and high strength aircraft parts. Composite industry is the field that graphene can be quickly adapted because graphene can be produced in powder form similar to many of the other additives used in the composites industry. Composites industry is a €63.2 Billion market and it is expected to reach above €113,85 Billion within the next 5-6 years. Offering performance properties comparable with the current metallic and ceramic materials is the main motivation for the composite producers and costs of the additives in the market constitutes only 1% (>€1 Billion market for additives) of the overall costs.

The major obstacle that prevents the rapid initiation and adaption of graphene into the composites market is the price ranges (2800-7600 €/kg) of the material with desired quality. In order to overcome this obstacle, Nanografi developed a simple, disruptive, cost-effective and environment-friendly graphene production method (patent pending) and offered a good chance for graphene in the composites industry. The developed method offers graphene nanoplatelet product with high quality and offering the lowest price range (<€85/kg graphene) after the production is scaled up to 100 tonnes/year within 5 years. The price offers can go down further as the demand increases. To conclude, in GREENGRAPHENE Project, Nanografi aims to bring its high quality graphene product which we produce by our highly innovative method to the composites market and prepare technical/economic feasibility plans for increasing the use of graphene in the composites industry.

REDUCED GRAPHENE OXİDE AND APPLİCATİONS

Graphene oxide (GO) is a type of graphene that contains oxygen functional groups and has some interesting properties different than those of graphene. By reducing graphene oxide, reduced graphene oxide is obtained which is abbreviated to rGO. In this process, the functional groups of graphene are removed but it still contains residual oxygen, hetereatoms and structural defects which decrease its quality. Having less-quality compared to pristine graphene, rGO is still an outstanding material for various applications since it resembles an attractive cost and manufacturing processes compared to the pristine graphene. Especially, it is preferred in applications that call for a large amount of material.

Depending on the method of preparation of reduced graphene oxide, properties and morphology of the rGO can vary. Some preparation methods of reduced graphene oxide include:

  • treating graphene oxide with hydrazine hydrate at 100°C for 24 hours
  • exposure to hydrogen plasma for several seconds
  • exposure to powerful pulsed light from xenon flashtubes
  • heating the graphene oxide with urea as an expansion-reduction agent
  • direct heating of graphene oxide in a furnace to very high temperatures

Applications of Reduced Graphene Oxide (rGO)

Electronics: rGO shows a great potential in electronics applications. It is used as a field effect transistor that has been used in chemical sensors and biosensors. In biosensors, detect hormonal catecholamine molecules, avidin and DNA. rGO is also used in light emitting diodes (LEDs) and solar cell devices. For these applications, having transparent electrode is important and rGO is a convenient for these devices.

Energy Storage: Nanocomposites of rGO is used for lithium-ion batteries, extensively. In these batteries, nanoparticles of insulating metal oxide are absorbed onto rGO which enhances the performance of these materials in lithium-ion batteries.

It is also used in many composite materials and printable graphene electronics.

Overall, rGO is a suitable material for many applications although it looks like less impressive when it is compared to graphene.

​HYDROXYAPATİTE NANO AND MİCRON POWDER

Hydroxyapatite is a calcium phosphate compound, its formula is Ca10 (PO4)6(OH)2. It is a part of the raw material, called phosphoric rock. The term hydroxy refers to the anion OH. If instead of that anion is replaced with fluoride, the mineral would be called Fluoroapatite Ca10 (PO4)6(F)2. Hydroxyapatite is the main inorganic component of the bones and dental enamel.

Hydroxyapatite predominantly exists in two forms which are nanoHydroxyapatite powder and micron Hydroxyapatite powder. The difference between the two is of size. The size of Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles is below 200 nm whereas micron Hydroxyapatite exists in the range of 45 – 90 micron. The surface area for Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles is around 9.4 m2/g whereas Hydroxyapatite micron powder has a surface area of 120 m2/g.

 

History and importance of Hydroxyapatite

The use of Hydroxyapatite began after 1950 when after a lot of research, it was found that it can be used in dental surgeries. Since then, its use has continuously increased. It is an important element in the bone tissues of living beings. Its great stability against other calcium phosphate products permits it to withstand physiological conditions, giving the bones their characteristic hardness. Hydroxyapatite fulfills its operation with the aid of collagen, the fibrous protein of connective tissues. Hydroxyapatite consists of Ca2+ ion, but it can also consist of other cations in its structure such as Na+Mg2+, etc.

Structure of Hydroxyapatite

The below image shows the structure of hydroxyapatite. All spheres occupy the volume of the half of a hexagonal “box”, where the other half is identical to the first.

Structure of Hydroxyapatite

In this structure, the green spheres represent Ca2+ cations, while the red spheres represent oxygen atoms, the orange spheres represents the phosphorus atoms, and the white spheres represent OH.

The phosphate ions in this structure have the defect of not exhibiting a tetrahedral geometry; instead, they look like pyramids with square bases.

It looks like OH– is positioned far from the Ca2+. However, the crystalline unit can repeat itself on the roof of the first, thus presenting the close relationship between both ions. Also, these ions can be substituted by others such as Na+ and F.

Synthesis of Hydroxyapatite

Hydroxyapatite can be created by the reaction of calcium hydroxide with phosphoric acid:

10Ca(OH)2 + 6H3PO4 => Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 + 18H2O

Likewise, hydroxyapatite can be produced through the following reaction:

10Ca(NO3)2. 4H2O + 6NH4H2PO4 => Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 + 20NH4NO3 + 52H2O

The hydroxyapatite nanoparticles can be generated by controlling the rate of precipitation.

 

Hydroxyapatite crystals

The ions are crushed and grown to form a resistant and rigid bio crystal. This is employed as a biomaterial for bone mineralization. However, it needs collagen, an organic support that acts as a mold for its development. These crystals and their complex formation procedures depend on the bone.

Physical and Chemical properties

  • 1.Hydroxyapatite is a white powder that can acquire grayish, green and yellow appearance. As it is a crystalline solid, it has a greater melting point (1100 °C), which indicates strong electrostatic interactions.
  • 2.Fluorine (F) can be substituted by OH ions in the crystal structure. In this case, it adds resistance to the hydroxyapatite of the dental enamel against the acids. Possibly, this resistance may be due to the insolubility of the formed CaF2, refusing to “leave” the crystal.
  • 3.However, in acidic media (as in HCl), it is soluble. This solubility is due to the creation of CaCl2, a highly soluble salt in water. Also, phosphates are protonated (HPO42- and H2PO4-) and interact to a greater extent with water.
  • 4.It is denser as compared to water, with a density of 3.05 – 3.15 g/cm3. Moreover, it is practically insoluble in water (0.3 mg/mL), which is because of phosphate ions.
  • 5.The solubility of hydroxyapatite in acids is significant in the pathophysiology of caries. The bacteria in the oral cavity secrete lactic acid, a product of the fermentation of glucose, which drops the pH of the dental surface to less than 5 so that hydroxyapatite starts to dissolve.

 

Applications of nanoHydroxyapatite

Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles have a diversity of applications, which are given below:

  • In the surgery of bone tissue, it is employed in the filling of cavities in traumatological, maxillofacial, orthopedic, and dental surgeries.
  • The use of hydroxyapatite nanopowder is beneficial in the repairing of enamel and incorporation in toothpaste, as well as mouth rinses.
  • It is employed as a coating for orthopedic and dental implants. It is a desensitizing agent used after tooth whitening. It is also employed as a remineralizing agent in toothpaste and in the early diagnosis of caries.
  • Due to its resemblance in size, crystallography, and composition with hard human tissue, it is valuable for use in prostheses. Also, nano-hydroxyapatite is bioactive, biocompatible, and natural, as well as not being toxic or inflammatory.
  • Titanium and Stainless steel implants are frequently coated with hydroxyapatite nanoparticles to decrease their refutation rate.
  • It is a substitute to xenogenic and allogeneic bone grafts. The healing time is less in the presence of hydroxyapatite nanopowder than in its absence.

Applications of micron hydroxyapatite powder

  • An alginate-hydroxyapatite complex has been manufactured which is capable of absorbing fluorine through the mechanism of ion exchange.
  • Hydroxyapatite micron powder has also been used as a provision for the electrophoresis of nucleic acids. It separates RNA from DNA, as well as DNA from a single strand of two-strand DNA.
  • Micron Hydroxyapatite is used in the air filters of motor vehicles to enhance the efficiency of filters in the absorption and decomposition of carbon monoxide (CO). This decreases the environmental pollution.
  • Micron Hydroxyapatite is employed as a chromatographic medium for proteins. This presents positive charges (Ca+) and negative charges (PO4-3), so it can interact with electrically charged proteins and permit the separation by the ion exchange process.
XTEMOS ELEMENT

BLOG WITH SMALL IMAGES

NANOGRAFİ’S HORİZON 2020 SME INSTRUMENT WİNNER PROJECT

Nanografi Company was awarded with Horizon 2020 SME Instrument Phase 1 grant by European Union to launch one of the largest Graphene Manufacturing Plants in the world with its patent pending eco-friendly and cost efficient production method (GREENGRAPHENE).

With its disruptive innovation of GREENGRAPHENE, Nanografi has applied for European Commission’s Horizon 2020 SME Instrument programme, a highly competitive and reputable fund aiming to increase Europe’s global competitiveness, and granted to Small and Medium-sized Enterprises with innovative & groundbreaking projects in Europe.

As one of the pioneers in the field, Nanografi developed a graphene production method in 2016 which releases no hazardous substance to the environment, leaves almost no waste behind, and decreases the costs in significant amounts, without sacrificing the quality.

Graphene Production is now Eco-Friendly as well

Before 2016, graphene production was not only costly, but also suffering from environmental problems because a huge amount of waste was generated during old graphene production processes. Economic and environmental concerns became an obstacle for industries to benefit from graphene in full measure.

After its groundbreaking discovery, inventors of graphene were awarded with 2010 Nobel Prize in Physics. Being the lightest, strongest, and the most conductive material in the world, graphene is known to have a wide range of uses in many industries today.

It is expected that in the next five years the demand for graphene will increase over 10 thousand tons per year, making the current total global capacity of manufacturers, less than 1000 tons, highly insufficient.

 


Objective of GREENGRAPHENE Project

Graphene-based materials gained a lot of interest by researchers worldwide and a wide variety of applications has been developed from them in the last decade. There are more than 45.000 patent applications recorded after the inventors of graphene were awarded with Nobel prize in 2010. Graphene’s applications extend from fast charging high capacity batteries to light-weight and high strength aircraft parts. Composite industry is the field that graphene can be quickly adapted because graphene can be produced in powder form similar to many of the other additives used in the composites industry. Composites industry is a €63.2 Billion market and it is expected to reach above €113,85 Billion within the next 5-6 years. Offering performance properties comparable with the current metallic and ceramic materials is the main motivation for the composite producers and costs of the additives in the market constitutes only 1% (>€1 Billion market for additives) of the overall costs.

The major obstacle that prevents the rapid initiation and adaption of graphene into the composites market is the price ranges (2800-7600 €/kg) of the material with desired quality. In order to overcome this obstacle, Nanografi developed a simple, disruptive, cost-effective and environment-friendly graphene production method (patent pending) and offered a good chance for graphene in the composites industry. The developed method offers graphene nanoplatelet product with high quality and offering the lowest price range (<€85/kg graphene) after the production is scaled up to 100 tonnes/year within 5 years. The price offers can go down further as the demand increases. To conclude, in GREENGRAPHENE Project, Nanografi aims to bring its high quality graphene product which we produce by our highly innovative method to the composites market and prepare technical/economic feasibility plans for increasing the use of graphene in the composites industry.

REDUCED GRAPHENE OXİDE AND APPLİCATİONS

Graphene oxide (GO) is a type of graphene that contains oxygen functional groups and has some interesting properties different than those of graphene. By reducing graphene oxide, reduced graphene oxide is obtained which is abbreviated to rGO. In this process, the functional groups of graphene are removed but it still contains residual oxygen, hetereatoms and structural defects which decrease its quality. Having less-quality compared to pristine graphene, rGO is still an outstanding material for various applications since it resembles an attractive cost and manufacturing processes compared to the pristine graphene. Especially, it is preferred in applications that call for a large amount of material.

Depending on the method of preparation of reduced graphene oxide, properties and morphology of the rGO can vary. Some preparation methods of reduced graphene oxide include:

  • treating graphene oxide with hydrazine hydrate at 100°C for 24 hours
  • exposure to hydrogen plasma for several seconds
  • exposure to powerful pulsed light from xenon flashtubes
  • heating the graphene oxide with urea as an expansion-reduction agent
  • direct heating of graphene oxide in a furnace to very high temperatures

Applications of Reduced Graphene Oxide (rGO)

Electronics: rGO shows a great potential in electronics applications. It is used as a field effect transistor that has been used in chemical sensors and biosensors. In biosensors, detect hormonal catecholamine molecules, avidin and DNA. rGO is also used in light emitting diodes (LEDs) and solar cell devices. For these applications, having transparent electrode is important and rGO is a convenient for these devices.

Energy Storage: Nanocomposites of rGO is used for lithium-ion batteries, extensively. In these batteries, nanoparticles of insulating metal oxide are absorbed onto rGO which enhances the performance of these materials in lithium-ion batteries.

It is also used in many composite materials and printable graphene electronics.

Overall, rGO is a suitable material for many applications although it looks like less impressive when it is compared to graphene.

​HYDROXYAPATİTE NANO AND MİCRON POWDER

Hydroxyapatite is a calcium phosphate compound, its formula is Ca10 (PO4)6(OH)2. It is a part of the raw material, called phosphoric rock. The term hydroxy refers to the anion OH. If instead of that anion is replaced with fluoride, the mineral would be called Fluoroapatite Ca10 (PO4)6(F)2. Hydroxyapatite is the main inorganic component of the bones and dental enamel.

Hydroxyapatite predominantly exists in two forms which are nanoHydroxyapatite powder and micron Hydroxyapatite powder. The difference between the two is of size. The size of Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles is below 200 nm whereas micron Hydroxyapatite exists in the range of 45 – 90 micron. The surface area for Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles is around 9.4 m2/g whereas Hydroxyapatite micron powder has a surface area of 120 m2/g.

 

History and importance of Hydroxyapatite

The use of Hydroxyapatite began after 1950 when after a lot of research, it was found that it can be used in dental surgeries. Since then, its use has continuously increased. It is an important element in the bone tissues of living beings. Its great stability against other calcium phosphate products permits it to withstand physiological conditions, giving the bones their characteristic hardness. Hydroxyapatite fulfills its operation with the aid of collagen, the fibrous protein of connective tissues. Hydroxyapatite consists of Ca2+ ion, but it can also consist of other cations in its structure such as Na+Mg2+, etc.

Structure of Hydroxyapatite

The below image shows the structure of hydroxyapatite. All spheres occupy the volume of the half of a hexagonal “box”, where the other half is identical to the first.

Structure of Hydroxyapatite

In this structure, the green spheres represent Ca2+ cations, while the red spheres represent oxygen atoms, the orange spheres represents the phosphorus atoms, and the white spheres represent OH.

The phosphate ions in this structure have the defect of not exhibiting a tetrahedral geometry; instead, they look like pyramids with square bases.

It looks like OH– is positioned far from the Ca2+. However, the crystalline unit can repeat itself on the roof of the first, thus presenting the close relationship between both ions. Also, these ions can be substituted by others such as Na+ and F.

Synthesis of Hydroxyapatite

Hydroxyapatite can be created by the reaction of calcium hydroxide with phosphoric acid:

10Ca(OH)2 + 6H3PO4 => Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 + 18H2O

Likewise, hydroxyapatite can be produced through the following reaction:

10Ca(NO3)2. 4H2O + 6NH4H2PO4 => Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 + 20NH4NO3 + 52H2O

The hydroxyapatite nanoparticles can be generated by controlling the rate of precipitation.

 

Hydroxyapatite crystals

The ions are crushed and grown to form a resistant and rigid bio crystal. This is employed as a biomaterial for bone mineralization. However, it needs collagen, an organic support that acts as a mold for its development. These crystals and their complex formation procedures depend on the bone.

Physical and Chemical properties

  • 1.Hydroxyapatite is a white powder that can acquire grayish, green and yellow appearance. As it is a crystalline solid, it has a greater melting point (1100 °C), which indicates strong electrostatic interactions.
  • 2.Fluorine (F) can be substituted by OH ions in the crystal structure. In this case, it adds resistance to the hydroxyapatite of the dental enamel against the acids. Possibly, this resistance may be due to the insolubility of the formed CaF2, refusing to “leave” the crystal.
  • 3.However, in acidic media (as in HCl), it is soluble. This solubility is due to the creation of CaCl2, a highly soluble salt in water. Also, phosphates are protonated (HPO42- and H2PO4-) and interact to a greater extent with water.
  • 4.It is denser as compared to water, with a density of 3.05 – 3.15 g/cm3. Moreover, it is practically insoluble in water (0.3 mg/mL), which is because of phosphate ions.
  • 5.The solubility of hydroxyapatite in acids is significant in the pathophysiology of caries. The bacteria in the oral cavity secrete lactic acid, a product of the fermentation of glucose, which drops the pH of the dental surface to less than 5 so that hydroxyapatite starts to dissolve.

 

Applications of nanoHydroxyapatite

Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles have a diversity of applications, which are given below:

  • In the surgery of bone tissue, it is employed in the filling of cavities in traumatological, maxillofacial, orthopedic, and dental surgeries.
  • The use of hydroxyapatite nanopowder is beneficial in the repairing of enamel and incorporation in toothpaste, as well as mouth rinses.
  • It is employed as a coating for orthopedic and dental implants. It is a desensitizing agent used after tooth whitening. It is also employed as a remineralizing agent in toothpaste and in the early diagnosis of caries.
  • Due to its resemblance in size, crystallography, and composition with hard human tissue, it is valuable for use in prostheses. Also, nano-hydroxyapatite is bioactive, biocompatible, and natural, as well as not being toxic or inflammatory.
  • Titanium and Stainless steel implants are frequently coated with hydroxyapatite nanoparticles to decrease their refutation rate.
  • It is a substitute to xenogenic and allogeneic bone grafts. The healing time is less in the presence of hydroxyapatite nanopowder than in its absence.

Applications of micron hydroxyapatite powder

  • An alginate-hydroxyapatite complex has been manufactured which is capable of absorbing fluorine through the mechanism of ion exchange.
  • Hydroxyapatite micron powder has also been used as a provision for the electrophoresis of nucleic acids. It separates RNA from DNA, as well as DNA from a single strand of two-strand DNA.
  • Micron Hydroxyapatite is used in the air filters of motor vehicles to enhance the efficiency of filters in the absorption and decomposition of carbon monoxide (CO). This decreases the environmental pollution.
  • Micron Hydroxyapatite is employed as a chromatographic medium for proteins. This presents positive charges (Ca+) and negative charges (PO4-3), so it can interact with electrically charged proteins and permit the separation by the ion exchange process.
XTEMOS ELEMENT

BLOG CHESS

NANOGRAFİ’S HORİZON 2020 SME INSTRUMENT WİNNER PROJECT

Nanografi Company was awarded with Horizon 2020 SME Instrument Phase 1 grant by European Union to launch one of the largest Graphene Manufacturing Plants in the world with its patent pending eco-friendly and cost efficient production method (GREENGRAPHENE).

With its disruptive innovation of GREENGRAPHENE, Nanografi has applied for European Commission’s Horizon 2020 SME Instrument programme, a highly competitive and reputable fund aiming to increase Europe’s global competitiveness, and granted to Small and Medium-sized Enterprises with innovative & groundbreaking projects in Europe.

As one of the pioneers in the field, Nanografi developed a graphene production method in 2016 which releases no hazardous substance to the environment, leaves almost no waste behind, and decreases the costs in significant amounts, without sacrificing the quality.

Graphene Production is now Eco-Friendly as well

Before 2016, graphene production was not only costly, but also suffering from environmental problems because a huge amount of waste was generated during old graphene production processes. Economic and environmental concerns became an obstacle for industries to benefit from graphene in full measure.

After its groundbreaking discovery, inventors of graphene were awarded with 2010 Nobel Prize in Physics. Being the lightest, strongest, and the most conductive material in the world, graphene is known to have a wide range of uses in many industries today.

It is expected that in the next five years the demand for graphene will increase over 10 thousand tons per year, making the current total global capacity of manufacturers, less than 1000 tons, highly insufficient.

 


Objective of GREENGRAPHENE Project

Graphene-based materials gained a lot of interest by researchers worldwide and a wide variety of applications has been developed from them in the last decade. There are more than 45.000 patent applications recorded after the inventors of graphene were awarded with Nobel prize in 2010. Graphene’s applications extend from fast charging high capacity batteries to light-weight and high strength aircraft parts. Composite industry is the field that graphene can be quickly adapted because graphene can be produced in powder form similar to many of the other additives used in the composites industry. Composites industry is a €63.2 Billion market and it is expected to reach above €113,85 Billion within the next 5-6 years. Offering performance properties comparable with the current metallic and ceramic materials is the main motivation for the composite producers and costs of the additives in the market constitutes only 1% (>€1 Billion market for additives) of the overall costs.

The major obstacle that prevents the rapid initiation and adaption of graphene into the composites market is the price ranges (2800-7600 €/kg) of the material with desired quality. In order to overcome this obstacle, Nanografi developed a simple, disruptive, cost-effective and environment-friendly graphene production method (patent pending) and offered a good chance for graphene in the composites industry. The developed method offers graphene nanoplatelet product with high quality and offering the lowest price range (<€85/kg graphene) after the production is scaled up to 100 tonnes/year within 5 years. The price offers can go down further as the demand increases. To conclude, in GREENGRAPHENE Project, Nanografi aims to bring its high quality graphene product which we produce by our highly innovative method to the composites market and prepare technical/economic feasibility plans for increasing the use of graphene in the composites industry.

REDUCED GRAPHENE OXİDE AND APPLİCATİONS

Graphene oxide (GO) is a type of graphene that contains oxygen functional groups and has some interesting properties different than those of graphene. By reducing graphene oxide, reduced graphene oxide is obtained which is abbreviated to rGO. In this process, the functional groups of graphene are removed but it still contains residual oxygen, hetereatoms and structural defects which decrease its quality. Having less-quality compared to pristine graphene, rGO is still an outstanding material for various applications since it resembles an attractive cost and manufacturing processes compared to the pristine graphene. Especially, it is preferred in applications that call for a large amount of material.

Depending on the method of preparation of reduced graphene oxide, properties and morphology of the rGO can vary. Some preparation methods of reduced graphene oxide include:

  • treating graphene oxide with hydrazine hydrate at 100°C for 24 hours
  • exposure to hydrogen plasma for several seconds
  • exposure to powerful pulsed light from xenon flashtubes
  • heating the graphene oxide with urea as an expansion-reduction agent
  • direct heating of graphene oxide in a furnace to very high temperatures

Applications of Reduced Graphene Oxide (rGO)

Electronics: rGO shows a great potential in electronics applications. It is used as a field effect transistor that has been used in chemical sensors and biosensors. In biosensors, detect hormonal catecholamine molecules, avidin and DNA. rGO is also used in light emitting diodes (LEDs) and solar cell devices. For these applications, having transparent electrode is important and rGO is a convenient for these devices.

Energy Storage: Nanocomposites of rGO is used for lithium-ion batteries, extensively. In these batteries, nanoparticles of insulating metal oxide are absorbed onto rGO which enhances the performance of these materials in lithium-ion batteries.

It is also used in many composite materials and printable graphene electronics.

Overall, rGO is a suitable material for many applications although it looks like less impressive when it is compared to graphene.

​HYDROXYAPATİTE NANO AND MİCRON POWDER

Hydroxyapatite is a calcium phosphate compound, its formula is Ca10 (PO4)6(OH)2. It is a part of the raw material, called phosphoric rock. The term hydroxy refers to the anion OH. If instead of that anion is replaced with fluoride, the mineral would be called Fluoroapatite Ca10 (PO4)6(F)2. Hydroxyapatite is the main inorganic component of the bones and dental enamel.

Hydroxyapatite predominantly exists in two forms which are nanoHydroxyapatite powder and micron Hydroxyapatite powder. The difference between the two is of size. The size of Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles is below 200 nm whereas micron Hydroxyapatite exists in the range of 45 – 90 micron. The surface area for Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles is around 9.4 m2/g whereas Hydroxyapatite micron powder has a surface area of 120 m2/g.

 

History and importance of Hydroxyapatite

The use of Hydroxyapatite began after 1950 when after a lot of research, it was found that it can be used in dental surgeries. Since then, its use has continuously increased. It is an important element in the bone tissues of living beings. Its great stability against other calcium phosphate products permits it to withstand physiological conditions, giving the bones their characteristic hardness. Hydroxyapatite fulfills its operation with the aid of collagen, the fibrous protein of connective tissues. Hydroxyapatite consists of Ca2+ ion, but it can also consist of other cations in its structure such as Na+Mg2+, etc.

Structure of Hydroxyapatite

The below image shows the structure of hydroxyapatite. All spheres occupy the volume of the half of a hexagonal “box”, where the other half is identical to the first.

Structure of Hydroxyapatite

In this structure, the green spheres represent Ca2+ cations, while the red spheres represent oxygen atoms, the orange spheres represents the phosphorus atoms, and the white spheres represent OH.

The phosphate ions in this structure have the defect of not exhibiting a tetrahedral geometry; instead, they look like pyramids with square bases.

It looks like OH– is positioned far from the Ca2+. However, the crystalline unit can repeat itself on the roof of the first, thus presenting the close relationship between both ions. Also, these ions can be substituted by others such as Na+ and F.

Synthesis of Hydroxyapatite

Hydroxyapatite can be created by the reaction of calcium hydroxide with phosphoric acid:

10Ca(OH)2 + 6H3PO4 => Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 + 18H2O

Likewise, hydroxyapatite can be produced through the following reaction:

10Ca(NO3)2. 4H2O + 6NH4H2PO4 => Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 + 20NH4NO3 + 52H2O

The hydroxyapatite nanoparticles can be generated by controlling the rate of precipitation.

 

Hydroxyapatite crystals

The ions are crushed and grown to form a resistant and rigid bio crystal. This is employed as a biomaterial for bone mineralization. However, it needs collagen, an organic support that acts as a mold for its development. These crystals and their complex formation procedures depend on the bone.

Physical and Chemical properties

  • 1.Hydroxyapatite is a white powder that can acquire grayish, green and yellow appearance. As it is a crystalline solid, it has a greater melting point (1100 °C), which indicates strong electrostatic interactions.
  • 2.Fluorine (F) can be substituted by OH ions in the crystal structure. In this case, it adds resistance to the hydroxyapatite of the dental enamel against the acids. Possibly, this resistance may be due to the insolubility of the formed CaF2, refusing to “leave” the crystal.
  • 3.However, in acidic media (as in HCl), it is soluble. This solubility is due to the creation of CaCl2, a highly soluble salt in water. Also, phosphates are protonated (HPO42- and H2PO4-) and interact to a greater extent with water.
  • 4.It is denser as compared to water, with a density of 3.05 – 3.15 g/cm3. Moreover, it is practically insoluble in water (0.3 mg/mL), which is because of phosphate ions.
  • 5.The solubility of hydroxyapatite in acids is significant in the pathophysiology of caries. The bacteria in the oral cavity secrete lactic acid, a product of the fermentation of glucose, which drops the pH of the dental surface to less than 5 so that hydroxyapatite starts to dissolve.

 

Applications of nanoHydroxyapatite

Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles have a diversity of applications, which are given below:

  • In the surgery of bone tissue, it is employed in the filling of cavities in traumatological, maxillofacial, orthopedic, and dental surgeries.
  • The use of hydroxyapatite nanopowder is beneficial in the repairing of enamel and incorporation in toothpaste, as well as mouth rinses.
  • It is employed as a coating for orthopedic and dental implants. It is a desensitizing agent used after tooth whitening. It is also employed as a remineralizing agent in toothpaste and in the early diagnosis of caries.
  • Due to its resemblance in size, crystallography, and composition with hard human tissue, it is valuable for use in prostheses. Also, nano-hydroxyapatite is bioactive, biocompatible, and natural, as well as not being toxic or inflammatory.
  • Titanium and Stainless steel implants are frequently coated with hydroxyapatite nanoparticles to decrease their refutation rate.
  • It is a substitute to xenogenic and allogeneic bone grafts. The healing time is less in the presence of hydroxyapatite nanopowder than in its absence.

Applications of micron hydroxyapatite powder

  • An alginate-hydroxyapatite complex has been manufactured which is capable of absorbing fluorine through the mechanism of ion exchange.
  • Hydroxyapatite micron powder has also been used as a provision for the electrophoresis of nucleic acids. It separates RNA from DNA, as well as DNA from a single strand of two-strand DNA.
  • Micron Hydroxyapatite is used in the air filters of motor vehicles to enhance the efficiency of filters in the absorption and decomposition of carbon monoxide (CO). This decreases the environmental pollution.
  • Micron Hydroxyapatite is employed as a chromatographic medium for proteins. This presents positive charges (Ca+) and negative charges (PO4-3), so it can interact with electrically charged proteins and permit the separation by the ion exchange process.

SİLVER NANOWİRES & APPLİCATİONS

Silver nanowires are a type of silver nanomaterials that are expressively different in comparison to silver nanoparticles. As the name indicates, these nanomaterials have three dimensions.

The unique properties of this conductive nanomaterial have led to increasing use of silver nanowire-based technologies, such as in the manufacturing of flexible touchscreen displays. However, the potential adverse effects of these “thin but long” and highly reactive silver nanowires have been poorly understood so far. The goal should be the development of new and safer technological applications of silver nanowires.

Silver nanowires of different sizes, coatings, and shapes are being synthesized and analyzed by the consortium for potential human and environmental impacts. The properties of the nanowires that cause concern are identified and new synthetic methods are developed to produce silver nanowires with lower potential risks. New approaches to the recovery of silver nanowires are being developed to avoid possible landfill release and to facilitate the recycling of flexible electronics.

 

Properties of Silver Nanowires

The major properties of silver nanowires are given below:

  • They have distinct electrical, thermal, and optical properties and they can be used to produce a variety of products ranging from biological sensors to photovoltaics.
  • Silver nanowires are remarkable in absorption and reflection of light.
  • Silver nanowires interact with molecules in the solution and create a double layer of charge that inhibits aggregation and stabilizes the silver nanowires.
  • Silver nanowires are highly conductive.
  • Silver nanowires can be dispersed in water, ethanol IPA (isopropyl alcohol), ethylene glycol, and epoxy resin.

Production of Silver Nanowires

Silver nanowires can be produced by multiple techniques, some of them are stated below:

  • Rapid synthesis: Copper chloride and polyvinyl pyrrolidone are mixed in disposable glass vials to produce silver nanowires.
  • Electroless deposition: The metal amplification technique is used to produce silver nanowires and in this technique, electroless deposition of silver into the polycarbonate membranes occurs.
  • Polyol method: In this method, Silver nanowires are manufactured by an aqueous solvent which is heated in an autoclave at the temperature of 120 °C for approximately 8 hours.
  • Template method: This technique uses supramolecular nanotubes of an amphiphilic cyanine dye in an aqueous solution for the production of silver nanowires.

Applications of Silver Nanowires

Silver nanowires have a plethora of applications, the main ones are stated below:

  • Conductive applications: Computer boards, high-intensity LEDs, and Touchscreen displays.
  • Antibacterial applications: Clothing, Bandages, sterile equipment, cosmetics, and paints.
  • Optical sector: Medical imaging, Surface plasmons, Raman spectroscopy, optical limiters, and solar films.
  • Optical applications: Optical spectroscopies, for example, metal-enhanced fluorescence and surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

Latest inventions of Silver Nanowires

  • Silver nanowires garments

According to the latest invention, silver nanowires protect against the cold. This new invention is part of a new concept, name as “personal thermal management”. It is manufactured by coating the garment with silver nanowires (wires with a diameter of one nanometer, which is one billionth of a meter). As these metallic nanowires are conductors, the garment conducts the energy and serve as a portable “heater”. In other words, it can be actively heated with a source of electricity, such as a small battery.

But, in addition, the silver nanowires make the garment become a good insulator, able to reflect more than 90% of body heat. This reflection is much greater than that of the warmest wool sweater, which at most reflects around 20% of body heat. So the clothes coated with silver nanowires would work as active heating and as passive insulation. On the other hand, these garments would be breathable, due to the porous structure of the nanowires; and it would feel practically the same as normal clothes.

  • Ultra-light aerogel

A group of researchers from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in the US has developed a new type of ultra-light aerogel, so light could be held up by a rose without having to lower or bend it. It is a metal foam that is grafted into that new class of material with very light unique properties that can be used in particular in the electronic energy industries.

This material, in particular, uses ultra-light and conductive silver nanowires. According to Fang Qian, lead author of the study published in Nano Letters, “The high porosity and excellent mechanical/electrical properties of these silver nanotube aerogels can lead to better device performance and open up new possibilities for cell fuel, energy storage, medical devices, catalysis, and sensors”.

Future of Silver Nanowires

  • The increasing demand for micro integration of electronic systems has caused extensive research on metal nanowires due to their optical properties. This has caused the development of numerous advanced technologies in different sectors.
  • Silver has good electrical conductivity which is the reason that Silver nanowires have greater electrical conductivity with enhanced optical transparency and optical flexibility. These factors are important for manufacturing optoelectronic and electronic devices.
  • Research has also indicated that silver nanowires can be employed for the miniaturization of ultra large electrical circuits and quantum devices in the coming time.
  • Silver nanowires are likely to allow the next generation to create flexible touch panels, including the rotation of the car’s entire dashboard in a vast finger-sensitive surface. This is because they are better in electrical conduction than indium-tin-oxide and the current touch-sensor material. Silver nanowires can be easily applied to flexible plastic substrates. Moreover, they are also highly transparent.
  • They are not only useful in touch panels, but highly conductive silver nanowires also have applications in high-efficiency solar panels and lighting panels, which also benefit from the fact that nanowires are practically indestructible.

 

Silver nanowires have great potential for developing advanced technology applications. This is due to their exciting electrical, thermal and optical properties. They have applications in almost all the sectors such as optics, electronics, magnetics, textile, automobile, high-performance catalysts, and acoustics. A lot of researches are currently underway to discover more and more of its applications.

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NANOGRAFİ’S HORİZON 2020 SME INSTRUMENT WİNNER PROJECT

Nanografi Company was awarded with Horizon 2020 SME Instrument Phase 1 grant by European Union to launch one of the largest Graphene Manufacturing Plants in the world with its patent pending eco-friendly and cost efficient production method (GREENGRAPHENE).

With its disruptive innovation of GREENGRAPHENE, Nanografi has applied for European Commission’s Horizon 2020 SME Instrument programme, a highly competitive and reputable fund aiming to increase Europe’s global competitiveness, and granted to Small and Medium-sized Enterprises with innovative & groundbreaking projects in Europe.

As one of the pioneers in the field, Nanografi developed a graphene production method in 2016 which releases no hazardous substance to the environment, leaves almost no waste behind, and decreases the costs in significant amounts, without sacrificing the quality.

Graphene Production is now Eco-Friendly as well

Before 2016, graphene production was not only costly, but also suffering from environmental problems because a huge amount of waste was generated during old graphene production processes. Economic and environmental concerns became an obstacle for industries to benefit from graphene in full measure.

After its groundbreaking discovery, inventors of graphene were awarded with 2010 Nobel Prize in Physics. Being the lightest, strongest, and the most conductive material in the world, graphene is known to have a wide range of uses in many industries today.

It is expected that in the next five years the demand for graphene will increase over 10 thousand tons per year, making the current total global capacity of manufacturers, less than 1000 tons, highly insufficient.

 


Objective of GREENGRAPHENE Project

Graphene-based materials gained a lot of interest by researchers worldwide and a wide variety of applications has been developed from them in the last decade. There are more than 45.000 patent applications recorded after the inventors of graphene were awarded with Nobel prize in 2010. Graphene’s applications extend from fast charging high capacity batteries to light-weight and high strength aircraft parts. Composite industry is the field that graphene can be quickly adapted because graphene can be produced in powder form similar to many of the other additives used in the composites industry. Composites industry is a €63.2 Billion market and it is expected to reach above €113,85 Billion within the next 5-6 years. Offering performance properties comparable with the current metallic and ceramic materials is the main motivation for the composite producers and costs of the additives in the market constitutes only 1% (>€1 Billion market for additives) of the overall costs.

The major obstacle that prevents the rapid initiation and adaption of graphene into the composites market is the price ranges (2800-7600 €/kg) of the material with desired quality. In order to overcome this obstacle, Nanografi developed a simple, disruptive, cost-effective and environment-friendly graphene production method (patent pending) and offered a good chance for graphene in the composites industry. The developed method offers graphene nanoplatelet product with high quality and offering the lowest price range (<€85/kg graphene) after the production is scaled up to 100 tonnes/year within 5 years. The price offers can go down further as the demand increases. To conclude, in GREENGRAPHENE Project, Nanografi aims to bring its high quality graphene product which we produce by our highly innovative method to the composites market and prepare technical/economic feasibility plans for increasing the use of graphene in the composites industry.

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REDUCED GRAPHENE OXİDE AND APPLİCATİONS

Graphene oxide (GO) is a type of graphene that contains oxygen functional groups and has some interesting properties different than those of graphene. By reducing graphene oxide, reduced graphene oxide is obtained which is abbreviated to rGO. In this process, the functional groups of graphene are removed but it still contains residual oxygen, hetereatoms and structural defects which decrease its quality. Having less-quality compared to pristine graphene, rGO is still an outstanding material for various applications since it resembles an attractive cost and manufacturing processes compared to the pristine graphene. Especially, it is preferred in applications that call for a large amount of material.

Depending on the method of preparation of reduced graphene oxide, properties and morphology of the rGO can vary. Some preparation methods of reduced graphene oxide include:

  • treating graphene oxide with hydrazine hydrate at 100°C for 24 hours
  • exposure to hydrogen plasma for several seconds
  • exposure to powerful pulsed light from xenon flashtubes
  • heating the graphene oxide with urea as an expansion-reduction agent
  • direct heating of graphene oxide in a furnace to very high temperatures

Applications of Reduced Graphene Oxide (rGO)

Electronics: rGO shows a great potential in electronics applications. It is used as a field effect transistor that has been used in chemical sensors and biosensors. In biosensors, detect hormonal catecholamine molecules, avidin and DNA. rGO is also used in light emitting diodes (LEDs) and solar cell devices. For these applications, having transparent electrode is important and rGO is a convenient for these devices.

Energy Storage: Nanocomposites of rGO is used for lithium-ion batteries, extensively. In these batteries, nanoparticles of insulating metal oxide are absorbed onto rGO which enhances the performance of these materials in lithium-ion batteries.

It is also used in many composite materials and printable graphene electronics.

Overall, rGO is a suitable material for many applications although it looks like less impressive when it is compared to graphene.

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​HYDROXYAPATİTE NANO AND MİCRON POWDER

Hydroxyapatite is a calcium phosphate compound, its formula is Ca10 (PO4)6(OH)2. It is a part of the raw material, called phosphoric rock. The term hydroxy refers to the anion OH. If instead of that anion is replaced with fluoride, the mineral would be called Fluoroapatite Ca10 (PO4)6(F)2. Hydroxyapatite is the main inorganic component of the bones and dental enamel.

Hydroxyapatite predominantly exists in two forms which are nanoHydroxyapatite powder and micron Hydroxyapatite powder. The difference between the two is of size. The size of Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles is below 200 nm whereas micron Hydroxyapatite exists in the range of 45 – 90 micron. The surface area for Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles is around 9.4 m2/g whereas Hydroxyapatite micron powder has a surface area of 120 m2/g.

 

History and importance of Hydroxyapatite

The use of Hydroxyapatite began after 1950 when after a lot of research, it was found that it can be used in dental surgeries. Since then, its use has continuously increased. It is an important element in the bone tissues of living beings. Its great stability against other calcium phosphate products permits it to withstand physiological conditions, giving the bones their characteristic hardness. Hydroxyapatite fulfills its operation with the aid of collagen, the fibrous protein of connective tissues. Hydroxyapatite consists of Ca2+ ion, but it can also consist of other cations in its structure such as Na+Mg2+, etc.

Structure of Hydroxyapatite

The below image shows the structure of hydroxyapatite. All spheres occupy the volume of the half of a hexagonal “box”, where the other half is identical to the first.

Structure of Hydroxyapatite

In this structure, the green spheres represent Ca2+ cations, while the red spheres represent oxygen atoms, the orange spheres represents the phosphorus atoms, and the white spheres represent OH.

The phosphate ions in this structure have the defect of not exhibiting a tetrahedral geometry; instead, they look like pyramids with square bases.

It looks like OH– is positioned far from the Ca2+. However, the crystalline unit can repeat itself on the roof of the first, thus presenting the close relationship between both ions. Also, these ions can be substituted by others such as Na+ and F.

Synthesis of Hydroxyapatite

Hydroxyapatite can be created by the reaction of calcium hydroxide with phosphoric acid:

10Ca(OH)2 + 6H3PO4 => Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 + 18H2O

Likewise, hydroxyapatite can be produced through the following reaction:

10Ca(NO3)2. 4H2O + 6NH4H2PO4 => Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 + 20NH4NO3 + 52H2O

The hydroxyapatite nanoparticles can be generated by controlling the rate of precipitation.

 

Hydroxyapatite crystals

The ions are crushed and grown to form a resistant and rigid bio crystal. This is employed as a biomaterial for bone mineralization. However, it needs collagen, an organic support that acts as a mold for its development. These crystals and their complex formation procedures depend on the bone.

Physical and Chemical properties

  • 1.Hydroxyapatite is a white powder that can acquire grayish, green and yellow appearance. As it is a crystalline solid, it has a greater melting point (1100 °C), which indicates strong electrostatic interactions.
  • 2.Fluorine (F) can be substituted by OH ions in the crystal structure. In this case, it adds resistance to the hydroxyapatite of the dental enamel against the acids. Possibly, this resistance may be due to the insolubility of the formed CaF2, refusing to “leave” the crystal.
  • 3.However, in acidic media (as in HCl), it is soluble. This solubility is due to the creation of CaCl2, a highly soluble salt in water. Also, phosphates are protonated (HPO42- and H2PO4-) and interact to a greater extent with water.
  • 4.It is denser as compared to water, with a density of 3.05 – 3.15 g/cm3. Moreover, it is practically insoluble in water (0.3 mg/mL), which is because of phosphate ions.
  • 5.The solubility of hydroxyapatite in acids is significant in the pathophysiology of caries. The bacteria in the oral cavity secrete lactic acid, a product of the fermentation of glucose, which drops the pH of the dental surface to less than 5 so that hydroxyapatite starts to dissolve.

 

Applications of nanoHydroxyapatite

Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles have a diversity of applications, which are given below:

  • In the surgery of bone tissue, it is employed in the filling of cavities in traumatological, maxillofacial, orthopedic, and dental surgeries.
  • The use of hydroxyapatite nanopowder is beneficial in the repairing of enamel and incorporation in toothpaste, as well as mouth rinses.
  • It is employed as a coating for orthopedic and dental implants. It is a desensitizing agent used after tooth whitening. It is also employed as a remineralizing agent in toothpaste and in the early diagnosis of caries.
  • Due to its resemblance in size, crystallography, and composition with hard human tissue, it is valuable for use in prostheses. Also, nano-hydroxyapatite is bioactive, biocompatible, and natural, as well as not being toxic or inflammatory.
  • Titanium and Stainless steel implants are frequently coated with hydroxyapatite nanoparticles to decrease their refutation rate.
  • It is a substitute to xenogenic and allogeneic bone grafts. The healing time is less in the presence of hydroxyapatite nanopowder than in its absence.

Applications of micron hydroxyapatite powder

  • An alginate-hydroxyapatite complex has been manufactured which is capable of absorbing fluorine through the mechanism of ion exchange.
  • Hydroxyapatite micron powder has also been used as a provision for the electrophoresis of nucleic acids. It separates RNA from DNA, as well as DNA from a single strand of two-strand DNA.
  • Micron Hydroxyapatite is used in the air filters of motor vehicles to enhance the efficiency of filters in the absorption and decomposition of carbon monoxide (CO). This decreases the environmental pollution.
  • Micron Hydroxyapatite is employed as a chromatographic medium for proteins. This presents positive charges (Ca+) and negative charges (PO4-3), so it can interact with electrically charged proteins and permit the separation by the ion exchange process.
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